The lift-off process, while simple in concept, becomes complex once we account for the multiplicity of metals, polymers, and substrates that a user is contending with. For that reason the tool(s) to be used in the process can vary from user to user. For most applications a hot NMP soak, followed by hot NMP high pressure spray with an IPA rinse to complete the process will do the job. There are other considerations, however. NMP is under challenge as an industrial chemical while DMSO, a substitute, has other health considerations especially in a semiconductor fab setting. Some polymers are best removed by Acetone which can simplify matters considerably. At S-Cubed we have engineered, built and successfully implemented tools for lift-off which meet the specific requirements of our customers. Some tools are multiple chamber types, some with heated soaks, some recycling solvents etc. Further, because the essential purpose is to remove the underlying polymer, the same tool can also be used as a polymer “strip” or clean tool.